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Journal Information

Instructions for authors

INTRODUCTION

Revista Clínica Española published its first issue in 1940 and is the communication channel of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI).

Revista Clínica Española fully endorses the goals of updating knowledge and facilitating the understanding of key developments in internal medicine applied to clinical practice. Revista Clínica Española is subject to a thorough double-blind review of the received articles written in Spanish or English. Nine issues are published each year, including mostly originals, reviews and consensus documents. .

Revista Clínica Española is included, amongst other databases, in: Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, JCR/SCI-Expanded, Index Medicus/Medline and Excerpta Medica/EMBASE.

Articles by Spanish authors should comply with the general criteria of Law 14/2007, from 3rd July, for biomedical research (BOE n 159), which protects the rights of individuals who are subjects of research. Clinical trials should be registered with public databases prior to their initiation and patient recruitment, and only after approval of the institutional or regional Clinical Research Ethics Committee. The authors should provide the archive number and database where the trial is registered. For all clinical trials that initiate patient recruitment as of 1 January 2017, registration in public databases will be mandatory. Trials with patient recruitment prior to this date may still be submitted to the Journal for evaluation.

USE OF PUBLISHING GUIDELINES

When preparing articles, the international guidelines should be followed in order to express health research results and apply them to the specific type of study. Authors must provide a check-list, indicating the page number of the manuscript that refers to each section of the guidelines. This check-list will make it easier to review, but it will not be published with the work.

EQUATOR (http://www.equator-network.org/) contains an introduction and several aids (toolkits) for authors and manuscript reviewers. Some are also in Spanish (http://www.español.equator-network.org/).

Each type of article requires specific guidelines:

Clinical trials: CONSORT (http://www.consort-statement.org/).These guidelines are required, with the flow diagram being included in the manuscript, as well as its adjustment to non-pharmacological treatments.

The check-list will be provided on the last page of the manuscript.

Observational studies: STROBE (http://www.strobe-statement.org/) following the checklist appropriate to the type of study (cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional), and including the flow diagram in the manuscript. The checklist will be provided on the last page of the manuscript.

Diagnostic tests: STARD (http://www.equator-network.org/reporting-guidelines/stard/), including the check-list on the last page of the manuscript.

Systematic reviews and meta-analysis: PRISMA (http://www.prisma-statement.org/),including the fl ow diagram in the manuscript, and providing the check-list on the last page of the manuscript.

Qualitative studies and focus groups: COREQ (http://www.equator-network.org/reporting-guidelines/coreq/).

Studies on quality improvement: SQUIRE (http://www.squire-statement.org).

For other types of studies, consult EQUATOR.

Types of article

Originales.La revista considerará estudios clínicos y experimentales, ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, estudios de cohortes, estudios de detección, de pruebas de diagnóstico, análisis de costo-efectividad, estudios de evaluación de la toma de decisiones, estudios intervencionistas, estudios de casos y controles y estudios basados ¿¿¿en encuestas que han logrado altas tasas de respuesta. Los artículos podrán cubrir cualquier campo relacionado con la medicina interna y serán evaluados especialmente en la relevancia clínica de este campo. Los artículos deben tener una extensión máxima de 2500 palabras, excluyendo la portada, el resumen estructurado (máximo de 250 palabras), palabras clave, pies de figura y referencias (un máximo de 50). Se aceptarán hasta 5 tablas o figuras Revista Clínica Española.http://www.consort-statement.org /. Para los estudios de observación, se deben seguir los puntos enumerados en la lista de verificación disponible en http://www.strobe-statement.org /. Los estudios sobre la validez de las pruebas de diagnóstico deben seguir los estándares STARD disponibles en http://www.stard-statement.org/

Calzoncillos originales. La revista considerará estudios de investigación que, por sus características, pudieron ser publicados en forma abreviada. Estos artículos estarán estructurados como los originales. Su extensión no debe exceder las 1500 palabras, excluyendo la portada, el resumen (de 150 palabras), palabras clave, pies de figura y no más de 20 referencias. Se aceptarán hasta 2 tablas o figuras. El número de autores no debe exceder de 6 ..

Revisión clínica.Revista Clínica Española. considerará los manuscritos para esta sección en función de su importancia y actualidad, principalmente una solicitud del equipo editorial. Estos manuscritos pueden aparecer en 2 formatos: 1) revisión clínica narrativa, con una extensión máxima de 4000 palabras, excluyendo resumen no estructurado (máximo de 150 palabras), referencias (máximo de 80 referencias) y hasta 4 tablas o figuras; 2) breve revisión clínica, con una extensión máxima de 2000 palabras, excluyendo resumen no estructurado (máximo 150 palabras), referencias (máximo 50 referencias) y hasta 2 tablas o figuras. El número máximo de signatarios será de 3 para cualquiera de las 2 modalidades. Cualquier autor puede enviar manuscritos por iniciativa propia para su consideración en esta sección, comunicación previa con el equipo editorial y haber aceptado su tema. El autor también creará 4 preguntas de prueba para su inclusión en los módulos de autoevaluación como una actividad para la educación médica continua. Las preguntas deben tener 5 opciones de respuesta, de las cuales solo una debe ser correcta. Las preguntas deben referirse a conceptos del manuscrito y sus respuestas deben requerir una lectura cuidadosa del artículo. Al final de cada pregunta, se debe agregar un breve comentario (de 1 a 3 oraciones) sobre la respuesta correcta.

Revisiones sistemáticas y metaanálisis. Las revisiones sistemáticas pueden utilizar métodos estadísticos (metanálisis) para analizar y resumir los resultados de los estudios incluidos. Estas revisiones deben seguir los estándares PRISMA: http://prisma-statement.org/ . La extensión máxima del manuscrito debe ser de 4000 palabras, excluyendo resumen no estructurado (máximo 250 palabras), referencias (máximo 80 referencias) y hasta 5 tablas o figuras. El número de autores no debe superar los 6.

Conferencias Clínico-Patológicas (CPC). Podrán presentarse reuniones que cumplan los siguientes criterios: a) discusión clínica de un caso, acompañada de correlación patológica, que tenga lugar en cualquier hospital español; yb) una discusión por parte del locutor clínico sobre los aspectos más relevantes del caso, quien establece una serie de diagnósticos diferenciales a partir de los datos reportados y sugiere un diagnóstico. El enfoque principal de la discusión siempre estará en los datos clínicos del caso presentado. A continuación, se describe el diagnóstico inicial establecido por los médicos responsables del cuidado del paciente. A continuación, el artículo debe enumerar algunas de las intervenciones o comentarios (un máximo de 4) propuestos por los asistentes a la sesión; c) después de completar la discusión clínica, un orador de patología enumerará los principales hallazgos histopatológicos y especificará el diagnóstico patológico; d) entonces, el locutor clínico puede realizar la correlación anatomoclínica; e) los estudios deben tener una extensión máxima de 4000 palabras. Se aceptarán hasta 3 tablas y 4 figuras, así como un máximo de 20 referencias, y el número máximo de firmantes es de 5; f) en el manuscrito, el locutor clínico y el locutor de patología figurarán como autores. Si una tercera persona estuvo a cargo de la organización del CPC y colaboró ¿¿¿¿en su redacción, esa persona figurará como editor asociado y no como autor; g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. y el número máximo de signatarios es 5; f) en el manuscrito, el locutor clínico y el locutor de patología figurarán como autores. Si una tercera persona estuvo a cargo de la organización del CPC y colaboró ¿¿¿¿en su redacción, esa persona figurará como editor asociado y no como autor; g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. y el número máximo de signatarios es 5; f) en el manuscrito, el locutor clínico y el locutor de patología figurarán como autores. Si una tercera persona estuvo a cargo de la organización del CPC y colaboró ¿¿¿¿en su redacción, esa persona figurará como editor asociado y no como autor; g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. Si una tercera persona estuvo a cargo de la organización del CPC y colaboró ¿¿¿¿en su redacción, esa persona figurará como editor asociado y no como autor; g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. y el número máximo de signatarios es 5; f) en el manuscrito, el locutor clínico y el locutor de patología figurarán como autores. Si una tercera persona estuvo a cargo de la organización del CPC y colaboró ¿¿¿¿en su redacción, esa persona figurará como editor asociado y no como autor; g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. Si una tercera persona estuvo a cargo de la organización del CPC y colaboró ¿¿¿¿en su redacción, esa persona figurará como editor asociado y no como autor; g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. y el número máximo de signatarios es 5; f) en el manuscrito, el locutor clínico y el locutor de patología figurarán como autores. Si una tercera persona estuvo a cargo de la organización del CPC y colaboró ¿¿¿¿en su redacción, esa persona figurará como editor asociado y no como autor; g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. y el número máximo de signatarios es 5; f) en el manuscrito, el locutor clínico y el locutor de patología figurarán como autores. Si una tercera persona estuvo a cargo de la organización del CPC y colaboró ¿¿¿¿en su redacción, esa persona figurará como editor asociado y no como autor; g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. y el número máximo de signatarios es 5; f) en el manuscrito, el locutor clínico y el locutor de patología figurarán como autores. Si una tercera persona estuvo a cargo de la organización del CPC y colaboró ¿¿¿¿en su redacción, esa persona figurará como editor asociado y no como autor; g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado. g) Todas las CPC serán evaluadas por el comité de redacción de la Revista Clínica Española. antes de ser aceptado y publicado.

Conferencias Clínicas.Se considerarán todas las reuniones clínicas (excepto las clínico-patológicas) que incluyan un caso clínico razonado. Este formato puede incluir sesiones clínicas cerradas en las que un ponente clínico discute temas relevantes del caso y establece un diagnóstico diferencial bien razonado que conduce a un diagnóstico final. A diferencia de las conferencias clínico-patológicas, la solución del caso no tiene que basarse en una prueba histopatológica, sino que puede basarse en una prueba de laboratorio, microbiológica o de otro tipo. Esta sección también puede incluir estudios de casos que se discuten por etapas, donde los ponentes explican su razonamiento de acuerdo con la información del caso proporcionado. Los estudios tendrán una extensión máxima de 3000 palabras y un máximo de 20 referencias. Se aceptarán hasta 3 tablas y 3 figuras.

Pros y contras. En esta sección, una solicitud del equipo editorial, autores expertos en el tema presentarán puntos de vista contrastantes sobre un tema controvertido. La extensión será de 1500 palabras, con un resumen no estructurado de 150 palabras y un máximo de 30 referencias y dos firmantes.

Correspondencia. En esta sección se publican las objeciones y comentarios sobre los artículos recientemente publicados en la revista (Cartas al Editor), tales como observaciones y experiencias que se pueden resumir en un breve texto, así como sobre las hipótesis sometidas al método científico, reportadas en breve (cartas científicas). Revista Clínica Española no aceptará cartas de observación que consistan en la descripción de un caso clínico. El texto no debe exceder las 500 palabras ni incluir más de 10 referencias. Puede incluirse una figura o una tabla. El número de signatarios se limita a 4. Los estudios tendrán una extensión máxima de 1000 palabras y un máximo de 15 referencias. Las cartas concernientes o relacionadas con artículos publicados previamente en la revista tendrán prioridad de publicación, así como el derecho a réplica. Este tipo de letra será más corta, con un máximo de 300 palabras y 5 referencias. La carta no debe referirse a estudios o experiencias personales que no hayan sido publicadas previamente. La carta se enviará al autor del estudio original, quien puede responder en una carta de tamaño similar dentro de un mes. La carta y la respuesta se publicarán continuamente.

Medicina en imágenes. En esta sección se publicarán imágenes de alto valor didáctico o formativo. La imagen debe estar descrita y acompañada de flechas o símbolos que proporcionen aclaración. La imagen debe tener un texto descriptivo de no más de 250 palabras. No se deben incluir referencias. Se aceptará un máximo de 3 autores.

Articulos especiales. Esta sección contendrá manuscritos que, por su contenido único, no pueden incluirse en otras secciones de Revista Clínica Española. . Los artículos tendrán una extensión máxima de 1500 palabras y se aceptarán hasta 3 tablas o 3 figuras. No deben exceder las 40 referencias. Los manuscritos deben incluir un resumen no estructurado de 150 palabras y el número máximo de autores firmantes es de 3.

Documentos de consenso. El manuscrito definitivo se remitirá a la Revista Clínica Española para su valoración junto con la correspondiente autorización del Consejo de Administración de la Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna o de las demás sociedades de especialidades médicas que en él se presenten.

Debe haber una sección de conflicto de intereses en el artículo que establezca claramente que no ha estado presente ningún apoyo financiero de ninguna institución del sector privado.

La revista publicará el documento de consenso aceptado como Resumen Ejecutivo, cuyo objetivo es ofrecer a los lectores un resumen detallado y claro del documento de consenso, así como exponer el alcance y los aspectos más relevantes de todo el documento.

El documento de consenso seguirá las siguientes reglas:

  1. Título en español e inglés. El título comenzará con la frase “Resumen ejecutivo del documento de consenso sobre…”.
  2. El número máximo de autores es 10. Los coinvestigadores deben figurar en un Apéndice al final del manuscrito. En ambos casos se requiere filiación profesional.
  3. Resumen en español e inglés que tendrá un máximo de 150 palabras.
  4. Palabras clave en español e inglés utilizadas en el Index Medicus (MeSH).
  5. El cuerpo del Resumen Ejecutivo tendrá un máximo de 3.000 palabras y contendrá:
    • Introducción, describiendo la necesidad o el fundamento del documento.
    • Métodos, describiendo el camino seguido para llegar al Documento de Consenso: criterios de selección de ítems, análisis y validación de ítems, incluyendo porcentaje de acuerdo para cada uno.
    • Resultados que relacionan el mayor contraste.
    • Breve. Explicará la aplicabilidad, limitaciones e implicaciones del documento.
    • Las referencias, (un máximo de 15 citas) se redactarán según la guía de referencia de Revista Clínica Española .
    • Se acompañará de las tablas y figuras que se consideren necesarias para una interpretación clara y concisa de la información.
    • Cabe mencionar que el documento de Consenso Completo se publicará como material en línea adicional al Resumen Ejecutivo, disponible en el enlace web.
  6. Cada componente del resumen ejecutivo, así como los documentos asociados o material adicional, junto con el documento completo que se publicará como anexo, deberán cargarse en la plataforma RCE.

Otras secciones. La revista incluye otras secciones que serán encargadas. Los editoriales pueden estar firmados por 2 autores.

Contact details for submission

All manuscripts must be submitted online through the Revista Clínica Española EES Web site at http://ees.elsevier.com/rce

 

Language

This journal is published in Spanish and in English language.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded:
Manuscript:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Clinical trial results
In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.
Reporting clinical trials

Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.

Registration of clinical trials
Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.
Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

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You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or Academia.edu, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.

Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access fee for this journal is 3,000 € excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy.

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Elsevier Researcher Academy

Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Submission
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Submit your article

Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/rce.

Referees

Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

PREPARATION
Peer review

This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Double-blind review

This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure
Subdivision - unnumbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Introduction

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods

Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

Results

Results should be clear and concise.

Discussion

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Conclusions

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Appendices

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration.  Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Structured abstract

A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.

The headings will consist of: «Introduction and Objectives», «Patients or Materials and Methods», «Results» y «Conclusions».

Graphical abstract

Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

Highlights

Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.

Keywords

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using British spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Abbreviations
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Acknowledgements
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Formatting of funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.
Artwork
Image manipulation

Whilst it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.

Electronic artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites). Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services

Elsevier's Autor Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

References
Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue

Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software

Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

Reference style

Text: Indicate references by superscript numbers in the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Examples:
Reference to a journal publication:
1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.Sc.2010.00372.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
2. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00205.
Reference to a book:
3. Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
5. Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] 6. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34)(see also Samples of Formatted References).

Journal abbreviations source

Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Video

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

 

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

 

AFTER ACCEPTANCE
Proofs

One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

AUTHOR INQUIRIES

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.

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