Revista Clínica Española (English Edition) Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)
Rev Clin Esp 2017;217:534-42 - Vol. 217 Num.9 DOI: 10.1016/j.rceng.2017.05.004
The assessment of medical competencies
La evaluación de competencias en Medicina
E. Sureda-Demeulemeestera,b, C. Ramis-Palmerb, A. Sesé-Abadb,,
a Departamento de Desarrollo Organizacional, Hospital Universitario Son Espases, Palma, Mallorca, Islas Baleares, Spain
b Departamento de Psicología, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma, Mallorca, Islas Baleares, Spain
Received 27 March 2017, Accepted 28 May 2017

To describe the most widely used tools in the assessment of medical competencies, analyze their prevalence of use, their advantages and disadvantages and propose an appropriate model for our context.


We conducted a narrative review of articles from MEDLINE, following the PRISM protocol, and analyzed a total of 62 articles.


The assessment of competencies is heterogeneous, especially in the educational and professional settings. The specific and technical competencies acquired during university education are mainly assessed using the objective structured clinical assessment. In the professional setting, core competencies are assessed using the 360° technique.


We need a rigorous empiric comparison of the efficiency of the tools according to the type of competency. We propose a competency management model for the “undergraduate/graduate/active professional” continuum, whose goal is to improve training and professional practice and thereby increase the quality of patient care.


Describir las herramientas más utilizadas en la evaluación competencial en Medicina, analizar su prevalencia de uso, sus ventajas e inconvenientes y proponer un modelo apropiado para nuestro contexto.


Revisión narrativa de artículos de MEDLINE, siguiendo el protocolo PRISMA. Se analizaron un total de 62 artículos.


La evaluación competencial es heterogénea, especialmente en el ámbito educativo y profesional. Las competencias específicas o técnicas durante la formación universitaria se evalúan fundamentalmente mediante evaluación clínica objetiva estructurada, mientras que en el ejercicio profesional se valoran competencias nucleares utilizando la técnica 360°.


Se necesita un contraste empírico riguroso de la eficiencia de las herramientas en función del tipo de competencia. Se propone un modelo de gestión competencial sobre el continuo «pregrado/posgrado/profesionales en activo». Su finalidad es contribuir a la mejora de la formación y de la práctica profesional y, por ende, incrementar la calidad de la atención al paciente.

Competency management, Competency assessment, Professionals competencies, Assessment instruments, Objective structured clinical evaluation, 360° assessment
Palabras clave
Gestión por competencias, Evaluación competencial, Competencias profesionales, Instrumentos de evaluación, Evaluación clínica objetiva estructurada, Evaluación 360°


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Rev Clin Esp 2017;217:534-42 - Vol. 217 Num.9 DOI: 10.1016/j.rceng.2017.05.004
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